When the book, Emotional Intelligence, appeared in 1995, many business leaders agreed with the basic message that success is strongly influenced by personal qualities such as perseverance, self-control, and skill in getting along with others.1 They could point to "super sales persons" who had an uncanny ability to sense what was most important to the customers and to develop a trusting relationship with them. They could point to customer service employees who excelled when it came to helping angry customers to calm down and be more reasonable about their problems with the product or service. And they also could point to brilliant executives who did everything well except get along with people, or to managers who were technically brilliant but could not handle stress, and whose careers stalled because of these deficiencies. Business leaders well understood how valuable these "emotionally intelligent" employees are to an enterprise.2 But what about the many workers who lack these important emotional competencies? Is it possible for adults to become more socially and emotionally competent? Many business leaders are less certain about this question. For instance, the dean of a major business school, when asked about the importance of emotional intelligence at work, enthusiastically agreed that it was crucial. But when we asked him how his school attempted to improve the emotional intelligence of MBA students, he said, "We donít do anything. I donít think that our studentsí emotional intelligence can be improved by the time they come here. Theyíre already adults, and these qualities are developed early in life."